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Database management is a system for managing data that supports the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs and modifying it as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is an element of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that organize data according to a certain scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most used database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to modify various databases.

Most DBMSs can accommodate various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability and other operational issues such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and could also include virtual tables that are created from data that is generic to enhance performance.