Database management is the method to manage information that is essential to the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to applications and users and editing it when needed and monitoring changes to the data and making sure that data integrity is not compromised due to unexpected failure. It is one component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve massive amounts of data for a wide range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields called attributes that contain information about data entities The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can accommodate different types of databases by offering different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is focused on cost, scalability, as well as other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could include a mix of different external views based on different data models. It also may also include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.